Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
In the healthcare field, Pharmacotoxicology deals with the study of results of toxic exposure to pharmaceutical drugs and agents. Pharmacotoxicology also refers to the treatment as well as prevention of pharmaceutically induces diseases. Biotransformation is the chemical modification made by an organism on a chemical compound and additionally in mineral compounds such as CO2, NH4+, or H2O. Biotransformation is a type of chemical alteration of different chemical contents including nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs inside the body. If a drug binds with unexpected proteins, receptors or enzymes that can alter different pathways other than those desired for treatment severe downstream effects can develop. Bioactivation is also considered as an important step in the activity of certain pharmaceuticals.
. Toxicology testing
. Applied Pharmacology
. Toxicology and risk management
. Ethical and legal issues